(Info as of November 2000)


Governmental Guidelines

NEW!! United Kingdom, Immigration Appellate Authority, Asylum Gender Guidelines, November 2000, by Nathalia Berkowitz and Catriona Jarvis

Australia, Dept. of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Refugee and Humanitarian Visa Applicants: Guidelines on Gender Issues for Decision-Makers (1996)

Canada, Immigration and Refugee Board, Guidelines for Women Refugee Claimants Fearing Gender-Related Persecution (Update; November 13, 1996)

Canada, Immigration and Refugee Board, Child Refugee Claimants: Procedural and Evidentiary Issues (September 30, 1996)

United States, Immigration & Naturalization Service, Office of International Affairs, Considerations for Asylum Officers Adjudicating Asylum Claims From Women (1995)

United States, Immigration & Naturalization Service, Guidelines for Children’s Asylum Claims from the website of the Refugee Law Center (December 10, 1998)


Non-governmental guidelines

Ireland: Irish Gender Guidelines for Female Refugees & Asylum Seekers, June 2000

The Irish Council for Civil Liberties Women’s Committee has published best practice guidelines for treatment of women asylum seekers and refugees in Ireland. The guidelines aim to help build trust between female refugees and their host community, throught the improvement of social and political practices. Included are sections on interpretations of the 1951 UN Convention on the Status of Refugees, asylum procedures, and reception and integration issues.

South Africa: Gender Guidelines for Asylum Determination, researched for the National Consortium on Refugee Affairs, South Africa, November 1999

United Kingdom: Refugee Women's Legal Group's proposed Gender Guidelines for Determination of Asylum Claims in the U.K. (1998)




International Association Of Refugee Law Judges (IARLJ), Inaugural Meeting IARLJ, Australia/New Zealand Chapter - 10 March 2000: Hon Justice Dame Silvia Cartwright, High Court of New Zealand, "Contemporary Gender Issues in the Refugee Context"

International Association Of Refugee Law Judges (IARLJ), Inaugural Meeting IARLJ, Australia/New Zealand Chapter - 10 March 2000: Hon Justice Deidre O'Connor, Federal Court of Australia, "Contemporary Gender Issues in Refugee Law"


Report of the Conference "Towards a Gender-Sensitive Asylum Policy in Europe", 11-12 June 1998, Brussels, can be ordered free of charge at UNHCR Brussels,

Women’s Commission on Refugee Women and Children:

Reports on the situation in Africa, South and South East Asia, Europe, Americas, Middle East, USA, Former Soviet Union etc.

Newsletter, International Network on Women fleeing Gender-related Persecution, May 2000 reports on gender-related persecution in Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Sweden

Gender-based persecution:  Immigration and Refugee Board decisions, Summaries taken from Reflex - July 1999

Gender-Based Persecution: New Zealand Jurisprudence

A paper prepared for the Symposium on Gender-Based Persecution organised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, 22 and 23 February 1996, Rodger PG Haines, Deputy Chairperson, New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority:

Gender Asylum Law in Different Countries: Decisions And Guidelines
by Women Refugees Program of RLC: Mimi Liu and Laura
Information available from Refugee Law Center

Right of asylum, deportations and risks of female genital mutilation, Presentation given by Anna Büllesbach, UNHCR, Nuremberg, Strasbourg, December 1999

Battered Women and the Criteria for Refugee Status: "Private" Persecution and the Emerging Law of State Responsibilities

Mark R. von Sternberg examines the legal basis for gender-based asylum claims, finding in human rights law grounds for protecting women from abuses committed by private persons.

BIA sends Mixed Messages on Gender Persecution cases


For more scholarly articles see


Information relating to efforts to promote protection for refugee women fleeing gender based persecution.

(Source Canadian Council for Refugees)


International Conference, 4 - 6 May 2001, Montréal
The Canadian Council for Refugees will be hosting an international conference with the goal of promoting recognition of gender-related persecution as a basis for refugee protection. The conference will bring together refugee women, refugee rights groups, refugee decision-makers, academics, government representatives, UNHCR and others interested in ensuring that women fleeing gender-based persecution receive protection.  For more information, please click here.

The Canadian Council for Refugees CCR has created a network of over 100 individuals and organizations interested in the issue, communicating by email.  To join the network, please contact

Refugee Women's Legal Group
RWLG is a UK group established by individuals and organisations concerned about the impact of changes in immigration law on refugee women in the UK.  The site contains links to resources.



Women's Human Rights Resources
Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
The Refugee and Immigration Law page on this site offers sections on articles, documents and links.

Center for Gender and Refugee Studies
University of California, Hastings College of Law
Contains summaries of US gender asylum cases, US and other case law and legal documents, including various gender guidelines, potential expert witnesses, links, etc.